The Danube Biosphere Reserve is an independent environmental research institution located in the extreme south-west of Ukraine, in the Killia and Tatarbunar regions of the Odessa Oblast. The administrative office is located in Vilkovo. The Danube Biosphere Reserve aims to solve major environmental problems of the surrounding region. It is made of an active research department integrated with an ecosystem-monitoring department; it services the ecological state of the reserve, as well as the Department of Environmental Education and an eco tourism company in Vilkovo. The reserve is subordinate to the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Territory and history of creation
The total area of the Danube Delta is 5,640 km2, including 1,200 km2 on the Ukrainian side. The coastal zone makes up 50,252.9 hectares of the reserve. The Danube Biosphere Reserve began its existence as a branch of the Black Sea Preserve in 1973. In 1981 the Danube branch of the Black Sea Preserve was designated an independent Nature Reserve, "Dunayskiye Plavny" an area of 14,851 hectares.
The Danube Biosphere Reserve was established by Presidential Decree № 861/98 on the 10th of August, 1998 as the "Dunayskiye Plavny" its area was 46,402.9 hectares. On February 2, 2004 Presidential Decree № 117/2004 expanded the territory of the reserve to 50,252.9 hectares.
The climate is temperate continental with relatively short and warm winters and long hot summers. Winter usually lasts from mid-December to the first week of March. Summer starts in early May and lasts until the third week of September. The average temperature in the hottest month, July, is 23 ° C with an absolute maximum of 39 ° C. The average January temperatures range from -1 ° C to -5 ° C. The annual amplitude of mean daily temperature reaches 41,5 ° C and absolute - 70 ° C. The duration of solar radiation exceeds 2300 h. / Year. The frost-free period lasts 200 days, vegetation 235-245 days.
Annual precipitation ranges from 300 to 700 mm, and an average of about 400 mm. condensation usually twice the amount of precipitation and is about 800 mm/year. Average water temperature in the Danube riverbeds is 12,7 ° C. River waters are the warmest in July and August, when their temperature averages 24,1 ° C with a maximum of 27,6 ° C.
Relief, geography, hydrology
Geographic relief of the reserve is almost flat with a slight increase in the northern regions. The highest natural elements of the area are sand dunes of Zhebriyanskoyi ridge, coastal and pryruslovi ridges. Over the past decade as a result of storing soil from intensive dredging throughout the North Delta, the port of Ust-Danube has artificially raised relief items.
The Danube Delta has a well-developed system of canals. The mizhruslovi delta islands have a saucer like shape due to high riverine (formed by deposits of silt in the flood period, on the banks of the islands) and coastal (wave activity arising from the sea with sea sand and solid river flow) natural positive elements deltaic terrain.
Hydrological fluctuations protected areas are due, almost entirely, to the hydrology of the Danube. During the year, the water volume the river brings into the estuarine region averages about 203 km 3 of water. H and Killia branches supply the protected areas, accounting for about 49% of the volume of water, water level in the estuary varies by season. The lowest levels occur in September - October. Increased levels of the Black Sea, which have been observed in the last decades, have spread to the Danube Delta. During the period from 1963 to 1992, the distance from Vilkovo to the sea (18 km from the sea) increased by 17 cm.
The level of water in the Danube Delta is significantly affected by a surge wind phenomenon. In exceptional cases water in the delta could rise a meter or more. This salty sea-water in the bottom layer often reaches the nearby city of Vilkovo.
Characteristics of natural complexes
The secondary delta
In the corners of the developing world association of rare plants such as water chestnuts (Trapa natans), white water lily (Nymphaea alba), goblet (Núphar lútea), fringed water-lily (Nymphoides peltata), Salvini floating (Salvínia nátans), here live hundreds of species of aquatic invertebrates. It is also feeding grounds of fish that live here. Mass species are oligochaetes Potamotrix hamoniensis, Limnodrilus claparedeanus, Nais and others, nonbiting midges (Chironomidae), dragonflies (Odonata), beetles (Coleoptera), bugs (Hemiptera) and leeches (Hirudinea). Several species are rare and the Red Book of Ukraine, such as the emperor dragonfly (Anax imperator).
The most widespread species of freshwater fish are carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), loach (Misgurnus fossilis), pike (Esox lucius), catfish (Silurus glanis), perch (Perca fluviatilis).
Among amphibians and reptiles are grass and water snakes (Natrix natrix), marsh turtle (Emys orbicularis), firebellied toads (Bombina bombina), common frogs (Hyla arborea) Marsh Frogs (Pelophylax ridibunda), pool Frogs (P. lessonae).
Waterfowl are numerous on the reserve there are about 120 species. Most widespread are the gray goose (Anser anser), mute swan (Cygnus olor), coot (Fulica atra), various species of ducks, herons, sandpipers, gull (Larus) and terns (Sterna). Several more rare species are also present, dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), pink pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), red-breasted goose, Common Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and others.
With good feeding and nesting grounds, the area is important for a large number of birds during migration, and during nesting. In these areas 250 species of birds are present throughout the year. Representing almost 90% of the species of avifauna.
DBR areas are important for nesting birds. The New Land branch in 2007-2011 observed nesting birds 11 species of humanity's number (7 of which are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine). The total number of birds nesting in these areas in some years reaches about 10 thousand pairs. The total number of "Red" birds (Birds in the red book of Ukraine) that were marked in the year reaches 52 species, representing 60% of the bird species listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.
The greatest number of wetland birds visiting during seasonal migration are found in coastal land branches and the shoals that surround them, namely the "New Land" "Avian" and Taranovoe Branches. Additionally on the New Land and Taranovoe branches are numerous settlements of Charadriiformes, which are among the largest in the Danube region.
Protected species of mammals in the coastal part of the delta are also numerous, the otter (Lutra lutra), european mink (Mustela lutreola), wild forest cat (Felis silvestris), and in the adjoining waters: bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and short beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis). Larger species of mammals are wild boar (Sus scrofa), invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and since 2009 there have been jackals (Canis aureus), which are becoming increasingly common.
Prior to odambovaniya, throughout much of the mid-twentieth century all ancient lagoons between Renee and the sand bars below Vilkovo flooded during annual rains, most of the sediment from these floods was deposited at the leading edge of the delta. After odambovaniya the has been less water, and thus sediment and nutrients from flooding. This has caused a reduction of the growth rate of vertical channels of the delta, which is conducive to smooth out the relief and the widening of the reed beds.
At the beginning of the delta system is brackish water - Badyka, Silly, Salty, Kuril shallow and others. The output from each arm of the sea forms open bays with unstable salinity. These bays share a name with their branch of the river, names like, "Eastern", "Fast", and "Very Shallow". The Danube brings 200,000 tons of freshwater plankton and other freshwater creatures to the Black Sea annually. These creatures will then die in the salty water and sink to the bottom. The Danube also brings huge amounts of water, dissolved nutrients and sediment to this delta.
In the nutrient-rich estuary are many thriving fauna of the Ponto-Caspian invertebrates of the genera Paramysis, Pseudocuma, Dikerogammarus, Pontogammarus., Many species of birds and fish find there habitats here, reproducing and feeding. Valuable species like the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), beluga (Huso huso), Danube salmon (Hucho hucho), Zingel (Zingel zingel), Danube streber (Zingel streber), umbra (Umbra krameri).
Commercialy fished species including the Black Sea herring (Alosa kessleri pontica), carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Silurus glanis) and others.
Together, these processes have a decisive influence on the biological productivity of the northwestern region of the Black Sea and the living resources of the Danube Delta.
This is quite valuable natural system of the Danube Biosphere Reserve.
In years between 1970 and 1980 the Stentsovsko-Zhebriyanovskie marshes received sufficient amounts of water. A large number of inland lakes were connected to each other by canals and channels resulting in a constant water exchange. At that time existed perfect conditions for the existence of invertebrates, reptiles and the successful breeding of spawning fish. Many bird species formed a stable food base. In some years, SZHP nested such rare species as the Glossy Ibis and Spoonbill. The number was 200 pairs of spoonbills, glossy ibis - up to 400 pairs. It is interesting that during these years of adverse environmental conditions in the Danube and Dniester rivers here moved an entire breeding community. In 1991, small swamps noted nesting cormorants.
But the inconsistent SZHP ecosystem gradually deteriorated: resulting in the intensified eutrophication. There was an increase in the observation of fish kill, lakes and streams began to fill with the growth of aquatic plants thereby reducing the area of open water surface. This process reduced the number of wetland birds during seasonal migrations and during the breeding season. Entire colonies disappeared, spoonbills, glossy ibis and small cormorant. The cause of this degradation was several negative factors.
The construction of dams along the Danube-Sasyk compromised the integrity of the hydrological ecosystem, practically segregating it into two independent parts. Another cause of degradation to the odambovanie marshes in the late 60's was the improper operation of old locks. A gradual rise in water level artificially increased the thickness of reed rhizomes and accumulation of organic matter, and some sites even began drainage. Dammed flooded to their current level - creating an almost artificial ecosystem the maintenance of which requires significant resources and extensive restoration work.
Restoration work in the Stentsovsko-Zhebriyanovskih began at the adoption in 2008 of the Memorandum of Understanding, which was signed by district state administration, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, LLC "Ekofortpost", WWF Danube-Carpathian Program, Odessa center YugNIRO. Work was performed in accordance with the approved plan of the Ministry of Nature Protection of the Territory DBR, the Scientific and Technical Coordination Council DBR and projects of its territory to protect natural systems.
Work was carried out to clear the main duct SZHP gradually - Murza, Laptysh, Chatal, a total length of more than 34 km. Future plans call for the clearing of small natural watercourses. In addition, in 2010, massive stockings of aquatic animals were conducted, carp, catfish, pike and biomelioratorami such as grass carp and tolstolob. This had a positive effect on the ecosystem of the flooded areas, including the avifauna. First, the restoration of marshes increased food supply of many wetland bird species, and secondly, the open water surface area increased the capacity of the nesting grounds.
Ermak Island, an area of 2,333.7 hectares, is one of the largest islands in the Ukrainian Danube Delta. Extending east to west at a length of 9.6 km and from north to south by 3.6 km. Ermak Island is flooded every spring as part of its natural cycle. These floodwaters of the Danube enrich the soil with nutrients and eat the vegetable of the island. This season of high water on the island forms spawning and nursery grounds for juvenile fish. Submerged grasslands feed a large number of birds, including several from the "Red Book." In summer the water level recedes on the island, leaving the vegetation soil and enriched. This cycle is repeated the following spring, creating one of the richest and most bio-diverse sites in the Danube delta.
In the 1960s the island was surrounded by dikes and drained. For years Ermak grazed cattle on the island. Decades of overgrazing and lack of flooding led to the degradation of the natural ecosystem of the island. In 2009, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the Danube Biosphere Reserve, Killia district administration, tenant Island LLC "Ermak" reached a consensus on restoring the island. These restoration efforts were completed in the spring of 2010 leaving a framework for Ermak Islands future.
The first flooding of the island in the spring of 2010 led to positive results - vegetati on and birds appeared, there was a spawning of fish. In shallow lakes and flooded areas in June were selected sample macrozoobenthos and fitofilnoyi fauna groupings submerged macrophytes. During a survey of the island (with hydrobiologist DBR) and its shallow flooded grassland areas, which are well warmed in the sun, numerous schools of young fish of the Cyprinidae family were visually observed. Favorable habitats for growth and feeding had been partially restored on the island. Past work on the restoration of Ermak Island was important for reproduction and conservation of diverse species of fish, fauna, and the whole Delta.
Now Ermak Island is an important area for the population of birds. On its territory 220 species of birds have been sited, representing about 80% of all known for fauna on the reserve and 53% of the known fauna of Ukraine.
Zhebriyanskaya ridge is an ancient coastal ridge which dates back more than one thousand years. A low sandy strip stretching from the village of Primorska in some places it is very narrow, only occasionally up to 250 m wide. It extends southward to 1 - 2 km, and near the city Vilkovo its width reaches 3.5 km. The total length of the ridge is 11.5 km, its area is about 2000 hectares. To the east it is bounded by reed beds which grow along the Belgorod Girlie in the west - Stentsovsko-Zhebriyanskimi wetlands stretch north to the sea and to the south it borders the Danube. Zhebriyanskaya Ridge — is a sandy spit, composed of shelly sands. Here areas of sand dunes and lozhbinoobraznye. Alternation and depressions in the sand dunes create conditions for growth here and marsh orchid species, along with rare species of flora psammophytic that do not occur in the secondary delta of the Killia arm of the Danube.
Flora of the Zhebriansky ridge include psammophytic, steppe, meadow, tree, shrub, wetland, water and transitional types of vegetation. This area hosts many endemic species, a significant number of them are steppe. These include Common Name? (Stipa borysthenica), Bessarabian cloves (Dianthus bessarabicus), (Chrysopogon gryllus) as well as others listed in the Red Book of Ukraine. Creeping Fumana (Fumana procumbens), somlatha or dvokoloskova ephedra (Ephedra distachya), Seaside Feverweed (maritimum), Dwarf Everlast (Helichrysum arenarium), these species are on the list of protected species in the Odessa Oblast. On the ridge there are regional species and several endemic to the Danube Reserve - Dnieper Onosma (Onosma borysthenica), Sandy Clover (Melilotus arenarius), Dnieper Cornflower (Centaurea borysthenica), cornflower Odessa C. odessana, Dnieper groundsel (Senecio borysthenicus), Seaside Myatlitsa Apera Maritima, Flattooth Cloves (Dianthus platyodon).
Lots of natural depression in the past were rich in species terms. exclusion plots channels and mine in the extraction of sand, plowing grasslands and afforestation this led to a decrease in humidity and changes in vegetation. Many rare plant species are found here, Marsh Orchids (Orchis palustris), Rough Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) etc. But many rare species listed in the Red Book of Ukraine such as Broad-Leaved Marsh Orchid (Dactylorhiza majalis), Broad-leaved Helleborine (Epipactis helleborine) and Marsh Helleborine (Epipactis palustris) - may soon disappear as a result from the lowering of groundwater.
In areas of deeper natural depressions are Sawtooth Sedge (Cladium mariscus) and Miniature Cattail (Typha minima) both listed in the Red Book of Ukraine. Thickets of Sawtooth Sedge are common in the reserve and the largest in Ukraine. Typical wetland woody vegetation occupies the border areas along the river and consists of white willow (Salix alba) and Crack Willow (Salix fragilis), in the sands grow Silver Poplar (Populus alba) and poplar European Black Pine (P. nigra). strands around one third of the territory - it afforestation of Crimean pine Pinus pallasiana. A reduced area overgrown with Sea-Buckthorn shrubs (Hippophae rhamnoides), Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) , False Indigo-Bush (Amorpha fruticosa), Silver Berry (Elaeagnus angustifolia) and (Elaeagnus argentea). In areas almost constantly flooded are present overgrown Sharpleaf Willow (Salix acutifolia) and Rosemary leaf Willow (Salix rosmarinofolia).
Afforestation Zhebriansky strands were undertaken in the early 20th century to consolidate the shaky quicksand that periodically covered the road and blocked the overland connection of Vilkove residents to other towns and villages of the region. To prevent this, first were planted White Acacia (robiniya pseudoakatsiya) (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nasazhdennyah) Over time appeared silver maple, and a variety of poplar. Since mid-century, Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), and in the early 80's — the Crimean pine were used to forest the ridge.
Further afforestation of the Zhebriansky strands must be done with natural flora species: poplar, White Poplar, and Hollows - a shrubby species of willow. This will create a tree-shrub vegetation such as Pegs. It is also possible to use some types of trees is the ridge Letty (Romania) (eg oak, Quercus). This will lead to a gradual recovery of the natural flora and other biota, which is of great value for preservation of biodiversity in the region.
On the Zhebriyanskoy territory of the ridge there are ordinary newts, Smooth Newts (Lissotriton vulgaris), Danube Crested Newt (Triturus dobrogicus), Fire Bellied Toad (Bombina bombina), Common Spadefoot Toad (Pelobates fuscus), Common Tree Frog (Hyla arborea), Gray Toad (Bufo bufo), Common Green Toad (Bufo viridis), Moor Frogs (Rana arvalis), Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) and Edible Frog (Pelophylax esculentus), representing 90.9% of the total number of amphibians on the reserve.
Many reptiles and various kinds of herpetofauna can be found in the DBR, including Marsh Turtle (Emys orbicularis), Multicolored Steppe Runner (Eremias arguta), Warbler Lizards (Lacerta agilis) and Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis taurica), Grass Snakes (Natrix natrix) and Dice Snakes (Natrix tessellata). This area of the Danube Biosphere Reserve is sandy steppe habitat, herpetokompleksiv found in this area include Warbler and Balkan Wall Lizards and Colorful Steppe Runner. All kinds of amphibians and reptiles that live in this area are including in the various lists of rare animals and are in need of protection.
There are 150 species of avifauna present on the Zhebryyanivskoho Ridge, representing 54.7% of avifauna in the DBR. Breeding occurs in this area for more than 40 species of birds, mainly Horobtsepodibnyh (29.5% of the birds that nest in DBR). Noted more than 20 species (33% of the total number of rare bird species in the DBR) that are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.
Common bird species found in the Zhebriansky strands are Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), Syrian Woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus), Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos minor), White Wagtail (Motacilla alba), Common Magpie (Pica pica), Western Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), Rook (Corvus frugilegus), Carrion Crow (Corvus corone), Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes), Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), Common Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita), Goldcrest (Regulus regulus), Common Firecrest (Regulus ignicapillus), Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus), Great Tit (Parus major), Field Sparrow (Passer montanus), Common Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis). In a small number of these areas occurs Common Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus), Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus), Long-Tailed Tit (Aegithalos caudatus), Eurasian Nuthatch (Sitta europaea), Common Treecreeper (Certhia familiaris), birds from the flycatcher family (Muscicapidae), Common Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) et al.
The mammalian fauna is quite rich and is represented in almost all species of terrestrial and aquatic systems. Among the most common are wild boar, deer, raccoon, fox, hare, all kinds of mice and also otter, muskrat and other aquatic mammals.
According to the Decree of the President of Ukraine "On the expansion of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve »№ 117 on 02.02.2004", the territory of the Danube Biosphere Reserve, without removing any land owners, was expanded to included the top (northern) lake. Sasyk (an area of 3450 hectares) of Dzhantsheyskoho estuary (area of 400 ha) within the Tatarbunar district.
The area was assigned to the zone of anthropogenic landscape and is a total area of 3850 hectares (or approximately 7.7% of the DBR). Limits attached to the DBR area actually coincide with the boundaries of the site where, according to recommendations of Southern Niro in 1986, there was introduced a permanent ban on fishing throughout the year.
Sasyk (Kunduk) - Reservoir in Odessa Oblast Ukraine. Its area is about 210 square km, with a depth of 2.7 m the lake stretches from north to south about 29 miles, its width ranges from 3 to 12 km. The specificity of this reservoir is in its shallow water. A Depth of approximately 2 m occupys 90% of the water area of Sasyk reservoir. The average depth of 1.9 m, and maximum of 3.5 m in the reservoir. Two rivers connect to the reservoir - Sarata and Kohylnyk. The reservoir freezes in December, and is freed from the ice in March.
At the present time Sasyk is a closed freshwater pond. Prior to the1980's it represented one of the estuaries of the Northwestern Black Sea and there was active water exchange with the Black Sea. After a decision by the government in 1979 Lake Sasyk was converted into fresh water storage for later use in irrigation of agricultural land in the planned irrigation system of the Danube River.
Due to hypersaline estuary bottom soils full desalination was not achieved despite the frequent change of water mass. Lake Sasyk water was unfit for either irrigation or for other domestic uses because of a water salinity of (2-4 ‰) and containing unwanted additional components, suspension of sediment, heavy metals, pesticides, etc., originating from the Danube.
In addition Lake Sasyk, as in a settling tank, saw a significant increase in salinity. 2.5 million tones of saline sediments formed in the bottom of the lake. With the transformation of Lake Sasyk into a freshwater reservoir in the late 80's and early 90's came catastrophic changes in species and vegetation composition. Plants, which were characteristic of the saline climate, disappeared and freshwater flora filled their place.
In the coastal area formed wetlands with very poor floristic composition. Abundant species are the common reed, common cattail (angustifolia), aster and normal saline bulbokomysh. The area of upper Sasyk is characterized by three types of vegetation: water, saline marshes wetlands and alkali-saline meadows around the reservoirs.
In the years between 1982 and 1991 within Sasyk reservoir were noted 54 species of fish belonging to 16 families, some of which (mainly Salt water), lived in the estuary Sasyk before desalination. After that were marked by three types: sunny perch, salmon and Black Sea and Haarder. In the reservoir, as in the Danube River and other water bodies in the region, the most common fish are of the carp family. In Lake Sasyk can be found 24 different species of the family. Most numerous are Zander Perch and River Perch. In recent years the main commercial species in the Sasyk reservoir are silver carp, bighead carp and white carp, which are produced in the reservoir after artificial breeding.
Common fish species in the north-western Black Sea - are Silverside, Sprat, Three-Spined Stickleback, Black Striped Needlefish, Round Goby, Goby and the Goby tsutsik Sandpiper. These species all breed successfully in the reservoir and in the Sasyk estuary.
Some rare species of fish in the reservoir are endemic to the Danube - Chop large salmon and the Danube and the Black Sea salmon. All of these species are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine and in Sasyk they are extremely rare. Marked by single individuals both young and adult specimens of the Russian Sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon, which come to the Sasyk reservoir on the Danube.
At the top of the Sasyk reservoir three species of amphibians are present green toad, red- Kumka, Lake Frog and four species of reptiles marsh turtle, ordinary water snake and Warbler lizard. All of them are included in the international list of rare animals.
Sasyk Reservoir is important for avifauna, mainly for wetland species. Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated 23 November 2005 included Sasyk Reservoir in the wetlands of international importance. Ninety species of nesting birds were sighted during the years 2007-2011 in these areas. The most valuable territory in ornithological terms is the upper Sasyk. A diversity of landscape study of the area noted good shelter during migration and nesting for birds of many different ecological groups. Throughout the year within the basin and the upper Sasyk reservoir Kohylnyk more than 180 species of birds can be seen, 31 of which are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.
Variety of mammals in the upper Sasyk reservoir includes species such as the weasel, fox, raccoon, badger, stone marten, forest polecat, ordinary ferret, European mink, river otter, rabbit, ferret spotted, hamster normal, muskrat and others. A government commission is working on the question of reconnecting the Sasyk to the sea.
Included in the Tuzlovskoyi estuaries, located in the south of Odessa region, on the shores of the northern part of the estuary is the Katranka resort, which is only open in the summer.
The Dzhantsheyskoho estuary, 450 hectares, was incorporated into the DBR without seizure from the landowners along with the land of the upper Sasyk reservoir. These belong to the zone of anthropogenic landscapes. An artificially made canal connects these two reservoirs. This canal previously carried the discharge of water and sediments from the Dzhantsheyskyy estuary to Sasyk estuary. Lack of desalination was the same for both of them and resulted in salty hydrological conditions. After conversion of the Sasyk estuary the Dzhantsheyskyy estuary was almost completely freshwater. Today the an open water body fills the area of the estuary, which in the spring and summer grows almost completely submerged by water-vegetation.
Ichthyofauna of Dzhantsheyskoho estuary are less diverse than those of Sasyk. This is due to the fact that not all species of fish that came to Sasyk from the Danube could infiltrate the various branches to Dzhansheyskoho estuary and populate it. As a result the estuary lacks species such as sabrefish, both types of carp and some others. On the other hand, due to proranu Dzhantsheyskyy estuary fall marine fish species, such as native species mullet, as well as publishing vselenets haarder that penetrates even to Sasyk where he finds himself very good conditions for foraging. But the most numerous species in Dzhansheyskomu estuary at this time are the silver carp. This is due to the presence of well developed air-aquatic vegetation (mainly reeds) and submerged aquatic vegetation. These provide good conditions for spawning and foraging. Though most numerous in species variety this area is quite shallow - up to 1 m depth in the reservoir. This prevents the spread of species that demand more oxygen. Among other species, except in the above Dzhantsheyskomu estuary, are the common carp, roach, krasnopirka-calf dragonfly and some others.
Species of amphibians in the Dzhantsheyskoho estuary are green toad, red-Kumka, Lake Frog and species of reptiles marsh turtle, ordinary water snake, lizard Warbler, multicolored yaschurka. All of them are included in the international list of rare animals.
Despite the fact that the area has undergone considerable anthropogenic pressure, it is extremely important for birds. The African-European-Asian migration corridor includes shoreline of the Northwestern Black Sea (including the estuary Dzhantsheyskyy) this is an important transit area and resting place of hundreds of thousands of birds during the spring and autumn migrations. Especially important is the fact that through this corridor migrate around 300 species of birds 50 of which are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine and a number of other environmental lists. In the reproductive period a bird's greatest value is coastline estuary, which is represented by thickets of higher aquatic vegetation. In canebrake usual yearly observed nesting buhaychyka, bitterns, mute swan, mallard, coot and Great Crested Grebe (Occasionally forms small colonies, the number of pairs of 8.10). Among aquatic breeding species are: kobylochka nightingale, Aquatic bush, pond and Sedge Warbler.
Service of Civil Protection DBR territory
As part of the service of the DBR territory are 16 inspectors. The head of service gosohrany director of the reserve who directly organizes their work with the Deputy Director - Head of State Security Service. At one health inspector falls on average 3.14 hectares controlled territory.
The main tasks of public health inspectors (This should be changed to rangers I think) is to ensure compliance with legal and natural laws of the DBR territory, prevent and suppress violations of environmental laws. Functional responsibilities of inspectors also include participation in monitoring the work of the reserve by maintaining a "Diary of observations ", valuable information which is used in the preparation of the" Chronicles of Nature."
In order to ensure effective protection of the protected zone and interaction with people the DBR territory has been divided into seven sections, each of which is assigned to the respective groups of employees gosohrany, there are five inspection borders, "Fast", "East", "landing", "afternoon", "Gypsy". Health inspectors who primarily provide DBR conservation area, working in alternate mode - week by week. Aquatic Preserve area controlled by using high-speed motorboats of "Crimea" dry-valley - road transport. Service gosohrany DBR territory operates under the authority granted by the Law of Ukraine "On the Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine" (p. 61), provided with uniforms and weapons.
Research Fellows of the DBR are monitoring changes throughout the territory of the Kiliya Delta, especially its coast, studied state of flora, avifauna, mammal fauna, fish fauna, hydro fauna, herpetofauna and batrachofauna. This includes active monitoring of climatic and hydrological parameters and constant analysis of the Danube water. The main purpose of this scientific group is doing "Chronicles of Nature" in the reserve and adjacent territories. This report is prepared on an annual basis and each edition since 1981 has been stored in the archive.
Educational and excursion work
A visitor center for the reserve is located in the central part Vilkovo on Nakhimov Street. This is a separate building with a separate courtyard. Information on many topics is available for visitors, natural ecology and a local history exhibition. The visitors center has a capacity of about 35 people and is equipped with modern TV and video. There is a video library of environmental films. The visitors center is open for local residents, especially students, as well as guests of the reserve and the city.
In addition the visitors center hosts several eco-excursions "kilometer zero ", "way to the birds", " Forest Lake ".
Travel companies that provide services in the field of eco-tourism in the DBR:
Ltd. "Vilkovo-Pelican Tour"
68355, Odessa region., Kili area Vylkove str. Belgorod feed, house. 56'A '
Office in Odessa:
65082, Odessa Street. Gogol, 8
Tel.: (048) 7771205, (0482) 375 410
68355, Odessa region., Vylkove str. Border, bud.7
tel.: (04843) 32159 (04843) 31565
Office in Odessa:
City Odessa area Vera Cold, 1
pH.: (048) 7998917, (067) 9816569
Where to stay
- Hotel "Venice", st. , 22, Vilkovo, tel.: 8 (04843) 3-13-74
- Tourist complex "Pelican", 56 Khmelnytsky St.,
- About a hundred rooms - p. Seaside Killia area.
- More than fifty rooms - resort "Katranka" Tatarbunar area.
How to get here
You can get to Vilkovo by intercity road Kyiv - Vilkovo, Odessa-Vilkovo, Ishmael -Vilkovo. Nearest motorway: E 95, M 05. A Kiev - Killia bus leaves the Kiev central bus station every evening around 7:00 pm it will take you to the bus station in Vilkovo. There are sleeper trains from Kiev to Odessa leaving several times throughout the evening and arriving in Odessa in the morning. There are buses leaving every two hours from the Odessa central bus station to Vilkovo until about 5:00 pm every day.
Bus Vilkovo - tel. (04843) 3-19-96
Taxi "Delta" - tel. (04843) 3-19-96